Maps depicting the percent of different Wildlife Value Orientation types by states in the Western U.S. (2005).
This type is characterized by a view of human mastery over wildlife and a prioritization of human well-being over wildlife. Specifically, utilitarians believe wildlife should be managed for human benefit.
This type views wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans. Mutualists believe that humans and wildlife are meant to co-exist or live in harmony, and thus wildlife deserve rights similar to the rights of humans.
This type possesses both utilitarian and mutualist wildlife values. Expression of one or the other orientation is situational.
This type lacks a well formed wildlife value orientation, indicating less interest in wildlife-related issues.