Destination Resilience

Figure 1. Resilience Vulnerability Risk Framework

Concept Definitions

  • Resilience: In social-ecological terms, resilience is broadly defined as the ability of a SES to decrease vulnerability to shocks and uncertainty through adaptation and / or transformation (Folke et al., 2010); in natural hazards research, resilience is essential to the development of multi-level disaster reduction and is generally defined as the capacity to resist and recover from loss (Zhou et al., 2010).
  • Risk: Any unpredictable, potential events such as natural disasters or social crises that threaten a socio-ecological system (SES); within a coupled SES, actions for reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience can all contribute to risk mitigation (Lei et al., 2014).
  • Vulnerability: Often defined as susceptibility to harm; in the risk field, researchers consider vulnerability as an internal attribute of a system that increases the probability of the potential hazard occurring (Folke et al., 2010); vulnerability is often measured in terms of exposure and sensitivity, where exposure is the extent to which a system is physically in harm’s way, and sensitivity is the extent to which a system is affected after being exposed to stress (Engle, 2011).

Reference List

Engle, N. L. (2011). Adaptive capacity and its assessment. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 647–656.

Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., & Rockström, J. (2010).

Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society, 15(4):20.

Lei, Y., Wang, J., Yue, Y., Zhou, H., & Yin, W. (2014). Rethinking the relationships of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation from a disaster risk perspective. Natural Hazards, 70, 609-627.

Zhou, H., Wang, J., & Wan, J. (2010). Resilience to natural hazards: a geographic perspective. Natural Hazards, 53, 21–41.

Research Project


Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area Case Study

A case study on vulnerability and resilience for risk mitigation in Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area, China.