Goldenberg, S. Z., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Wittemyer, G. 2018. Inter-generational change in African elephant range use is associated with poaching, primary productivity, and social disruption. Proc. Roc. Soc. B 285: 20180286

Bastille-Rousseau, G., Wall, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Wittemyer, G. 2018. Optimizing the positioning of wildlife crossing structures using GPS telemetry. Journal of Applied Ecology 55:2055-2063.

Bastille-Rousseau, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Blake, S., Northrup, J.M., Wittemyer, G. 2018. Applying network theory to animal movements to identify properties of landscape space use. Ecological Applications 28:854-864.

Sampson, C., McEvoy, J., Chit, A.M., Chan, A.N., David, T., Soe, P., Songer, M., Williams, C., WITTEMYER, G., Leimgruber, P. 2018. New Elephant Crisis in Asia—Early Warning Signs from Myanmar. PLoS One 13:e0194113

Turkalo, A.K., Wrege, P., and WITTEMYER, G. 2018. Demography of a Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) population. PLoS One 13:e0192777

Tucker, M.A., Boehing-Gaese, K., Fagan, W.F. et al. 2018. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements. Science 359:466-469.

Lendrum, P.E., Anderson, C. R., Northrup, J. M., Liston, G.E., Aldridge, C.L., Crooks, K.R., and WITTEMYER, G. 2018. Distinguishing the influence of prey distribution from environmental characteristics and anthropogenic disturbance on predation risk. Landscape Ecology 33:157-170.

WITTEMYER, G., Berger, J., Crooks, K.C., Noon, B., Pejchar, L., Reed, S. and Savidge, J. 2018. To advocate or not is no longer the questions: Paths to enhance scientific engagement. Bioscience 68:13-14.



Goldenberg, S. Z., WITTEMYER, G. 2017. Relatives and young calves drive social integration for orphaned female elephants. Scientific Reports 7:14408.

 Lendrum, P.E., Crooks, K.R., and WITTEMYER, G. 2017. Changes in circadian activity patterns of a wildlife community post high-intensity energy development. Journal of Mammology 98:1265-1271.

Keyel, A.C., Reed, S.E., McKenna, M., WITTEMYER, G. 2017. Modeling anthropogenic noise propagation using the Sound Mapping Tools ArcGIS toolbox. Environmental Monitoring Software 97:56-60

Goldenberg, S. Z., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Daballen, D., WITTEMYER, G. 2017. Challenges of using behavior to monitor anthropogenic impacts on wildlife: a case study on illegal killing of African elephants. Animal Conservation 20:215-224

Buxton, R.T., McKenna, M.F., Mennit, D., Fristrup, K.M., Crooks, K.R., Angeloni, L.M., and WITTEMYER, G. 2017. Noise pollution is pervasive in U.S. protected areas. Science 356:531-533.

WITTEMYER, G., Keating, L.M., Vollrath, F., Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2017. Graph theory illustrates spatial and temporal features that structure elephant rest locations. Ecography 40:598-605.

Turkalo, A.K., Wrege, P., and WITTEMYER, G. 2017. Slow intrinsic growth rate in Forest Elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) indicates recovery from poaching will require decades. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:153-159.

de Silva, S., Schmid, V.S., WITTEMYER, G. 2017. Fission-fusion processes weaken dominance networks of female Asian elephants in a productive habitat. Behavioral Ecology 28:243-252.



WITTEMYER, G. 2016. Illegal wildlife trade: Look to the elephants. Science 353:1507.

Northrup, J. M., Anderson, C. R., Hooten, M., WITTEMYER, G. 2016. Movement reveals scale-dependence in habitat selection of a large ungulate. Ecological Applications 26:2744-2755.

Shannon, G., McKenna, M. F., Angeloni, L.M., Lynch, E., Warner, K.A., Nelson, M.D., Leumas, C., Briggs, J., McFarland, S., Crooks, K.R., Fristrup, K.M., and WITTEMYER, G.  2016. A synthesis of two decades of research documenting the effects of noise on wildlife. Biological Reviews 91:982-1005.

Shannon, G., Crooks, K.R., WITTEMYER, G., Fristrup, K.M., and Angeloni, L.M. 2016. Road noise causes earlier predator detection and flight detection in a free-ranging mammal. Behavioral Ecology 27:1370-1375.

Stabach, J.A., WITTEMYER, G., Boone, R.B., Reid, R.S., Worden, J.S. 2016. Variation in habitat selection across three populations of resident white-bearded wildebeest. Ecosphere 7:e01428.

Goldenberg, S. Z., Odour, S., Kinnaird, M.F., Daballen, D., Douglas-Hamilton, I., WITTEMYER, G. 2016. Evidence of strong spatial segregation between elephant subpopulations in the contiguous Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 54:261-264

Northrup, J. M., Anderson, C. R., WITTEMYER, G. 2016. Environmental dynamics and anthropogenic landscape change alter philopatry and range size in a North American cervid. Diversity and Distributions 22:547-557

Schafer, A. B., Northrup, J. M., Wilkelski, M., WITTEMYER, G., Wolf, J.B. 2016. Forecasting ecological genomics: high-tech animal instrumentation meets high-throughput sequencing. PLoS Biology 14:e1002350

Goldenberg, S. Z., Douglas-Hamilton, I., WITTEMYER, G. 2016. Vertical transmission of social roles drives resilience to poaching in elephant networks. Current Biology 26:75-79



Northrup, J. M., Anderson, C. R., WITTEMYER, G. 2015. Quantifying spatial habitat loss caused by hydrocarbon development through assessing habitat selection patterns of mule deer. Global Change Biology 21:3961-3970.

Ihwagi, F.W., Wang, T., WITTEMYER, G., Skidmore, A.K., Toxopeus, A.G., Ngene, S., Worden, J., King, J., Omondi, P., Douglas-Hamilton, I.  2015. Using elephant distribution and poaching levels to assess the conservation efficacy of private, communal and government land in northern Kenya. PLoS One 10:e0139079

Durant, S.M., Becker, M.S., Creel, S., Bashir, S., Dickman, A.J., Beudels-Jamar, R.C., Lichtenfeld, L., Hilborn, R., Wall, J., WITTEMYER, G., Badamjav L., Blake, S., Boitani, L., Breitenmoser, C., Broekhuis, F., Christianson, D., Cozzi, G., Davenport, T.R.B., Deutsch, J., Devillers, P., Dollar, L., Dolrenry, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Dröge, E., FitzHerbert, E., Foley, C., Hazzah, L., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Ikanda, D., Jacobson, A., Joubert, D., Kelly, M.J., Milanzi, J., Mitchell, N., M’Soka, J., Msuha, M., Mweetwa, T., Nyahongo, J., Rosenblatt, E., Schuette, P., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Sinclair, A.R.E., Stanley-Price, M. R., Zimmermann, A., Pettorelli, N. 2015. Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:544-551

Polanksy, L., Kilian, W., WITTEMYER, G. 2015. Elucidating the significance of spatial memory on movement decisions by African elephants using state-space models. Proceedings of the Royal Society:B 282:20143042

Lynch, E.; Northrup, J. M.; McKenna, M. F.; Anderson, C. R.; Angeloni, L.; WITTEMYER, G.  2015. Landscape and anthropogenic features influence the use of auditory vigilance by mule deer. Behavioral Ecology 26:75-82



WITTEMYER, G., Northrup, J.M., Blanc, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Omondi, P., and Burnham, K. 2014. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:13117-13121

Metsio Sienne, J., Buchwald, R., WITTEMYER, G. 2014. Plant mineral concentrations related to foraging preferences of Western lowland gorilla in Central African forest clearings. American Journal of Primatology 76:1115-1126

Northrup, J. M., Shafer, A.B.,  Anderson, C. R., Coltman, D.W., WITTEMYER, G. 2014. Fine-scale genetic correlates to condition and migration in a wild Cervid. Evolutionary Applications 7(8):937-948

Goldenberg, S.Z., de Silva, S., Rasmussen, H.B., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and WITTEMYER, G. 2014. Dynamic states and social properties among male African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour 95:111-119

Wall, J., WITTEMYER, G., LeMay, V., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Klinkenberg, B. 2014. Elliptical time-density model to estimate animal utilization distributions. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5:780-790

Shannon, G., Angeloni, L.M., WITTEMYER, G., Fristrup, K.M., and Crooks, K.R. 2014. Road traffic noise modifies behaviour of a keystone species. Animal Behaviour 94:135-141

Northrup, J. M., Anderson, C. R., WITTEMYER, G. 2014. Effects of capture and handling on movement behavior of mule deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 78:731-738

Wall, J., WITTEMYER, G., Klinkenberg, B., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2014. Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and management using real-time monitoring. Ecological Applications 24:593-601

Chiyo, P.I., Grieneisen, L.E., WITTEMYER, G., Moss, C.J., Lee, P.C., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Archie, E.A. 2014. The influence of social structure, habitat, and host traits on the transmission of Escherichia coli in wild elephants. PLoS One e93408

Noa Pinter-Wollman, N., Hobson, E. A., Smith, J. E., Edelman, A. J., Shizuka, D., Waters, J. S., de Silva, S., Prager, S. D., Sasaki, T., WITTEMYER, G., Fewell, J., McDonald, D. B. 2014. The dynamics of network dynamics. Behavioral Ecology 25:260-261

Noa Pinter-Wollman, N., Hobson, E. A., Smith, J. E., Edelman, A. J., Shizuka, D., Waters, J. S., de Silva, S., Prager, S. D., Sasaki, T., WITTEMYER, G., Fewell, J., McDonald, D. B. 2014. The dynamics of animal social networks: analytical, conceptual, and theoretical advances. Behavioral Ecology  25:242-255

Sienne, J.M., Buchwald, R., WITTEMYER, G. 2014. Differentiation in mineral constituents in water and soil resources across Central African bais (forest clearings). European Journal of Wildlife Research 60:377-382 

Gessner, J., Buchwald, R., WITTEMYER, G. 2014. Assessing species occurrence and species specific use patterns of bais in Central Africa with camera traps. African Journal of Ecology 52:59-68.



Turkalo, A.K., Wrege, P., and WITTEMYER, G. 2013. Long term monitoring of the Dzanga bai forest elephants: Population description and bai use patterns. PLoS One 8(12):e85154

de Silva, S., Webber C.E., Weerathunga, U.S., Pushpakumara, T.V., Tharanga, J.S., Weerakoon, D., WITTEMYER, G. 2013. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations. PLoS One 8(12):e82788

Polansky L., Douglas-Hamilton, I., WITTEMYER, G. 2013. Using diel movement behavior to infer foraging strategies related to ecological and social factors in elephants. Movement Ecology 1:13

Creel, S., Becker, M. S., Durant, S. M., M’Soka, J., Matandiko, W., Dickman, A. J., Christianson, D., Droge, E., Mweetwa, T., Pettorelli, N., Rosenblatt, E., Schuette, P., Woodroffe, R., Bashir, S., Beudels-Jamar, R. C., Blake, S., Borner, M., Breitenmoser, C., Broekhuis, F., Cozzi, G., Davenport, T. R. B., Deutsch, J., Dollar, L., Dolrenry, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Fitzherbert, E., Foley, C., Hazzah, L., Henschel, P., Hilborn, R., Hopcraft, J. G. C., Ikanda, D., Jacobson, A., Joubert, B., Joubert, D., Kelly, M. S., Lichtenfeld, L., Mace, G. M., Milanzi, J., Mitchell, N., Msuha, M., Muir, R., Nyahongo, J., Pimm, S., Purchase, G., Schenck, C., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Sinclair, A. R. E., Songorwa, A. N., Stanley-Price, M., Tehou, C. A., Trout, C., Wall, J., WITTEMYER, G., Zimmermann, A. 2013. Conserving large populations of lions – the argument for fences has holes. Ecology Letters 16:1413-e3

Uno, K., Quade, J. Fisher, D.C., WITTEMYER, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Adanje, S., Omondi, P., Litoroh, M., Cerling, T.E. 2013. Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurements of recent biologic tissues and applications to stable isotope ecology and paleoecology, and to wildlife forensics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(29):11736-11741

Lynch, E., Angeloni, L., Fristrup, K., Joyce, D., WITTEMYER, G.  2013. The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behaviour. Ecology and Evolution 3(7):2030-2037

Northrup, J. M., Hooten, M. B., Anderson, C. R., WITTEMYER, G. 2013. Practical guidance on availability sampling for resource selection functions. Ecology 94(7):1456-1463

Maisels, F., Strindberg, S., Blake, S., WITTEMYER, G., Hart, J., Williamson, E., Aba’a, R., Abitsi, G., Ambahe, R., Amsini, F., Bakabana, P., Hicks, C., Bayogo, R., Bechem, M., Beyers, R., Bezangoye, A., Bonyenge, A., Boudjan, P., Bout, N., Akou, M.E., Bene Bene, L., Fosso, B., Greengrass,E.,  Grossmann, F., Ikamba-Nkulu, C., Ilambu, O., Inogwabini, B., Iyenguet, F., Kiminou, F., Kokangoye, M., Kujirakwinja, D., Latour, S., Liengola, I., Mackaya, Q., Madidi, J., Madzoke, B., Makoumbou, C., Malanda, G., Malonga, R., Mbani, O., Mbendzo, V., Mbenkira, M., Ambassa, E.,  Ekinde, A., Mboh, H., Mihindou, Y., Morgan, B., Motsaba, P., Moukala, G., Mounguengui, A., Mowawa, B., Ndzai, C., Nixon, S., Nkumu, P., Nzolani, F., Plumptre, A., Rainey, H., de Semoboli, B., Serckx, A., Stokes, E., Turkalo, A., Vanleeuwe, H., Vosper , A., Warren, Y., 2013. Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa.  PLoS One Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa.  PLoS One 8(3): e59469

Wall, J., WITTEMYER, G., Klinkenberg, B. LeMay, V., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2013. Characterizing properties and drivers of long distance movements by elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Gourma, Mali. Biological Conservation 157:60-68

Northrup, J.M. and WITTEMYER, G. 2013. Characterizing the impacts of emerging energy development on wildlife, with an eye towards mitigation. Ecology Letters 16:112-125

WITTEMYER, G., Daballen, D., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2013. Comparative demography of an at risk African elephant population. PLoS One 8(1):e53726



de Silva, S., & WITTEMYER, G. 2012. A Comparison of Social Organization in Asian Elephants and African Savannah Elephants. International Journal of Primatology DOI: 10.1007/s10764-011-9564-1



WITTEMYER, G., Daballen, D., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2011. Rising ivory prices threaten elephants. Nature 476:282-283.

Bouché, P., Douglas-Hamilton, I., WITTEMYER, G., Nianogo, A.J., Doucet, J., Lejeune, P., and Vermeulen, C. 2011. Will elephants soon disappear from West African savannahs? PLoS One 6:e20619

Boetiger, A.*, WITTEMYER, G.*, Starfield, R., Volrath, F., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Getz, W.M.. 2011. Inferring ecological and behavioral drivers of African elephant movement using a linear filtering approach. Ecology 92:1648-1657.

WITTEMYER, G. 2011. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants. Conservation Biology 25:1002-1009.

Polansky, L.* and WITTEMYER, G.* 2011. A framework for understanding the architecture of collective movements using pair-wise analyses of animal movement data. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 8:323-333.



Kahindi, O., WITTEMYER, G., King, J., Ihwagi, F., Omondi, P., & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2010. Employing participatory surveys to monitor the illegal killing of elephants across diverse land uses in Laikipia-Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48:972-983.

Polansky, L., WITTEMYER, G., Cross, P.C., Tambling, C.J. & Getz, W.M. 2010. Fourier and wavelet analyses applied to animal movement time series. Ecology 91:1506-1518.

Wasser, S., et al. 2010. Elephants, Ivory, and Trade. Science 327:1331-1332



WITTEMYER, G., Cerling, T.E., & Douglas-Hamilton I. 2009. Establishing longitudinal diet chronologies from isotopic profiles in serially collected hairs. Chemical Geology 267:3-11

WITTEMYER, G., Okello, J.B.A., Rasmussen, H.B., Arctander, P., Nyakaana, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., & Siegismund, H. 2009. Where sociality and relatedness diverge: the genetic basis for hierarchical social structure in African elephants. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 276:3513-3521

Cerling, T.E., WITTEMYER, G., Ehleringer, J.R., Remien, C.H., Douglas-Hamilton I. 2009. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:8093-8100



WITTEMYER, G., Polansky, L., Douglas-Hamilton, I. and Getz, W.M. 2008. Disentangling the effects of forage, social rank and risk on movement autocorrelation of elephants using Fourier and wavelet analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:19108-19113

WITTEMYER, G.*, Elsen, P., Bean, W.T., Burton, A.C.O. and Brashares, J.S.*.  2008. Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science 321:123-126.

Okello, J.B.A.*, WITTEMYER, G.*, Rasmussen, H.B., Arctander, P., Nyakaana, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., & Siegismund, H. 2008. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants. Molecular Ecology 17:3788-3799

Okello, J.B.A., Masembe, C., Rasmussen, H.B., WITTEMYER, G., Omondi, P., Kahindi, O., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Arctander, P., Nyakaana, S., & Siegismund, H. 2008. Population genetic structure of elephants in Kenya. Journal of Heredity 99:443-452

Rasmussen, H.B., Okello, J.B.A., WITTEMYER, G., Siegismund, H., Vollrath, F., & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2008. Age and tactic related paternity success in male African elephants. Behavioral Ecology 19: 9-15



WITTEMYER, G., Getz, W.M., Vollrath, F. & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2007. Social dominance, seasonal movements, and spatial segregation in the African elephant: A contribution to conservation behavior. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61:1919-1931

WITTEMYER, G. and Getz, W.M. 2007. Hierarchical dominance and social structure in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  Animal Behaviour 73:671-681

WITTEMYER, G., Ganswindt, A., and Hodges, K. 2007. The impact of ecological variability on the reproductive endocrinology of wild female African elephants. Hormones and Behavior 51:346-354

WITTEMYER, G.*, Rasmussen, H. B.*, & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2007. Breeding phenology in relation to NDVI variability in free-ranging African elephant. Ecography 30:42-50



WITTEMYER, G. and Getz, W.M. 2006. A Likely Ranking Interpolation for Resolving Dominance Orders in Systems with Unknown Relationships. Behaviour 143:909-930

Cerling, T.E., WITTEMYER, G., Rasmussen, H., Vollrath, F., Cerling, C.E., Robinson, T.J. & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2006. Stable isotopes in elephant hair documents migration patterns and diet changes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:371-373

Rasmussen, H. B.*, WITTEMYER, G.*, & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2006. Predicting time-specific changes in demographic processes using remote-sensing data. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:366-376

Douglas-Hamilton, I., Bhalla, S., WITTEMYER, G., & Vollrath, F. 2006. Behavioural reactions of elephants towards a dying and deceased matriarch.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100:87-102



WITTEMYER, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I., & Getz, W.M. 2005. The socio-ecology of   elephants: Analysis of the processes creating multileveled societies. Animal Behaviour 69:1357-1371

WITTEMYER, G., Daballen, D., Rasmussen, H., Kahindi, O., Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2005. Demographic status of elephants in the Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 43:44-47

Okello, J.B.A., WITTEMYER, G., Rasmussen, H.B., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Nyakaana, S., Arctander, P., & Siegismund, H. 2005. Noninvasive microsatellite genotyping and Mendelian inheritance in African savanna elephants. Journal of Heredity 96:679-687

Rasmussen, H. B., WITTEMYER, G., & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2005. Estimating age of immobilized elephants from teeth impressions using dental silicon. African Journal of Ecology 43:215-219



Rasmussen, L.E.L. & WITTEMYER, G. 2002.  Chemosignaling of musth by individual wild African elephants, (Loxodonta africana): implications for conservation and management. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 269:853-860



WITTEMYER, G. 2001.  The elephant population of Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology 39:357-365